Although there was no seasonality in the assemblage structure of macroinvertebrates, the diet of platypuses
Raf inhibitor varied between seasons, notably between winter and summer, suggesting that some dietary selectivity is seasonal. Dietary differences between the sexes were not detected. Overall, our results suggest that some dietary selection occurs in the platypus with respect to both foraging habitat and season. Seasonal selectivity may reflect different metabolic demands on platypuses at different times of the year. In contrast, habitat selectivity may reflect difficulty of prey access and risk of prey escape in fast-flowing riffles, higher energy costs and risk of predation associated with exploiting this habitat, and prey avoidance responses that are more rapid in the shallow riffles than in the deeper water pools and stream edges. These alternatives await evaluation by future research. “
“Thermotolerance traits vary across geographical gradients but there is a lack of clinal variation in some Drosophila species. Thus, it is not clear whether thermotolerance or other correlated traits are the target of natural selection. In order to test selection responses, we investigated body melanization and thermotolerance traits in six altitudinal populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Based on rearing
different geographical populations under uniform growth conditions at 21 °C (common garden experiments), clinal variations for cold resistance are in the direction opposite to heat resistance along an altitudinal gradient, that is Selleck Tigecycline darker flies from highland populations evidenced higher levels of cold resistance while lowland populations showed higher heat resistance. Phenotypic plastic responses for body melanization at 17–28 °C showed significant correlations with thermotolerance traits. At 17 °C, regression coefficients as a function of altitude are highly significant and positive for cold resistance but negative for heat knockdown.
However, for flies reared at 28 °C, there is no elevational change in melanization as well as thermotolerance traits. Thus, both genetic and plastic changes of body melanization and thermotolerance traits suggest a correlated selection response. Further, within-population analyses of body melanization (based on dark, intermediate and light color phenotypes) showed MCE公司 significant associations with thermotolerance traits. Correlated variations in body melanization and thermal tolerances are associated with climatic thermal variability (Tcv) but not with Tmin. or Tmax. along an altitudinal gradient. “
“Jaguars Panthera onca coexist with pumas Puma concolor across their entire range. In areas where they occur together their coexistence may be facilitated by differences in diet. This study compared food habits of jaguars and pumas in Belize, Central America, across a protected lowland rainforest and the neighbouring human-influenced landscape.