3 (w/w) has been performed using a 1,3 regiospecific lipase (Rhiz

3 (w/w) has been performed using a 1,3 regiospecific lipase (Rhizopus oryzae), to produce specialised fats with a high disaturated triacylglycerol (TAG) content (similar to 40%). The final conversions corresponded well to predictions from Adriamycin purchase a probability model. The variation of TAG composition with time was also measured to study the reaction kinetics. Initially, a reaction scheme was formulated allowing all possible acidolysis reactions of TAGs with stearic, palmitic and oleic fatty acids at the 1 and 3 TAG positions. It was found that a first order scheme produced good fits to data and that reactions involving stearic and palmitic

reactions in equivalent positions produced very similar fitted rate constants. When these rate constants were constrained to be equal, acceptable fits were also obtained. As the acidolysis reactions occur via the formation of diacylglycerols (DAGs) by hydrolysis (7.1-10.9%),

a further scheme was tested whereby all possible reactions involving DAGs were included (with equal rate constants for equivalent reactions with palmitic and stearic acid to limit the number of fit parameters). This produced only a small increase in goodness of fit. Assuming a single value of rate constant for all reactions produced poor fits. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Contamination of natural aquatic ecosystems by hospital wastewater is a major environmental and human health issue. Disinfectants, pharmaceuticals, radionuclides and Panobinostat solvents are widely used in hospitals for medical purposes and research. After application, some of these substances combine with hospital effluents and, in industrialised countries, reach the municipal sewer network. In certain developing countries, hospitals usually discharge their wastewater into septic tanks equipped with diffusion wells. The discharge of chemical compounds from hospital activities into the natural environment can

lead to the pollution of water resources and risks for human health. The aim of this article is to present: (i) the steps of a procedure intended to evaluate risks to human health linked to hospital effluents discharged into a septic tank equipped with a diffusion well; and (ii) the results of its application Fludarabine concentration on the effluents of a hospital in Port-au-Prince. The procedure is based on a scenario that describes the discharge of hospital effluents,via septic tanks, into a karstic formation where water resources are used for human consumption. COD, Chloroform, dichlomethane, dibromochloromethane, dichlorobromomethane and bromoform contents were measured. Furthermore, the presence of heavy metals (chrome, nickel and lead) and faecal coliforms were studied. Maximum concentrations were 700 NPP/100 ml for faecal coliforms and 112 mg/L for COD. A risk of infection of 10(-5) infection per year was calculated. Major chemical risks. particularly for children, relating to Pb(II), Cr(III), Cr(VI) and Ni(II) contained in the ground water were also characterised.

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