1) The remaining sperms showed abnormalities of different types

1). The remaining sperms showed abnormalities of different types. The percentage of the abnormal sperm in the extracts-treated rats as 88.1% of group-II (HOCS-M-I), 72.4% of group-IV (HOCS-M-II) and 91.3% of group-V (HOCS-M-III) rats when compared with control group (8.2% of group II) (Table 2 and Fig. 1). However, the percentage of the normal sperm gradually increased to the control by 55 days after cessation of treatment (Table 2). The cauda

epididymal sperm count was significantly reduced in rats treated Selisistat chemical structure with HOCS-I (group-III), HOCS-II (group-IV) and HOCS-III (group-V) showed about 18.5 ± 1.4 × 106, 43.1 ± 1.7 × 106 and 10.2 ± 1.3 × 106 sperm/ml respectively when compared with vehicle control (64.3 ± 2.2 × 106 sperm/ml) (Table 2 and Fig. 2). However, the sperm count gradually increased to the control by 55 days after cessation of treatment (Table 2). In the vehicle control (NHS)-treated rats, cauda epididymal sperm exhibited rapid progressive motility and it was lasted for about 1 h 45 min. But, in the rats treated HOCS-M-II (group-IV) sperm were sluggish for 32 min. On the other hand, in the rats treated with HOCS-M-I (group-III) and HOCS-M-III (group-V) sperm were not at Depsipeptide supplier all motile (Table 2 and Fig. 3). However, the motility recovered gradually to the normal, by

55 days after cessation of treatment (Table 2). It has been postulated that in multi-herbal formulas, the pharmacological activities of one single herb is either potentiated or prolonged, and/or its adverse effects reduced, due to synergistic or antagonistic effects, by addition of other herbs.7 These types of pharmacological action are called either ‘pharmacological combination effects’ or ‘pharmaceutical

combination effects’. Therefore, in the present study, the authors aimed to evaluate the potential combination effects of herbs in the newly developed oral suspensions for their antifertility activity in mature male rats. (i) In the present investigation, the decrease in the weights of epididymis, medroxyprogesterone seminal vesicle and ventral prostate following oral administration of formulations HOCS-M-I, HOCS-M-II and HOCS-M-III at a single dose for consecutive days for 55 days is similar with effects shown the individual plant drugs in the earlier study. From the overall results, the antigonadal activities of the formulation HOCS-M-III after 55 days of treatment might be due to significant inhibitory effect on pituitary–testicular axis that suppress testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis more effectively than HOCS-M-I and HOCS-M-II treatment. Further, this polyherbal suspension (HOCS-M-III) is more effective which may be explained by the herb–herb interaction13 or due to the synergistic effect of ingredients present in this composite extract.

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