053) At 12 months there was no difference between the groups [37

053). At 12 months there was no difference between the groups [37]. In the third trial two doses of a bivalent vaccine, containing two “fast killing” isolates, was given 3 weeks apart. One of these was an ocular isolate from Saudi Arabia, and the other from the USA. At 12 and 24 months there was no significant difference in the proportion of children who had acquired active trachoma between the vaccinated and placebo arms. However, at 24 months the proportion of children in the placebo group with conjunctival scarring was higher than in the vaccinated group (18/47 vs 9/55, p = 0.034) [37]. In the Indian trial two doses of a bivalent, formalin inactivated vaccine or placebo were given to children aged less

than 5 years without signs of clinical trachoma [36]. Twelve months www.selleckchem.com/products/DAPT-GSI-IX.html after the second dose 26/182 vaccinated children had developed clinical trachoma (14%), compared to 32/87 in the placebo group (37%) (p < 0.01). Among those who acquired trachoma, there was no difference in severity between vaccinated and control children. These trials showed that whole organism vaccines

can reduce ocular Ct infection and active trachoma, but that protection is short lived and, in some cases, strain-specific. Most encouragingly in The Gambia, where the presence of conjunctival scarring was also recorded, there was evidence that vaccination reduced the incidence of scarring disease. Trials in non-human primates, in particular those in the Taiwan monkey, suggested that vaccination could lead to more severe disease on subsequent exposure; but there was no convincing evidence that vaccination led to more Forskolin datasheet severe disease in humans. Since the 1960s considerable efforts have been made to develop a subunit vaccine against Ct, but only one of these has shown evidence of protection in a NHP [38]. Ct major outer membrane protein (MOMP), when given parenterally in its native form (i.e. maintaining its tertiary structure), reduced the bacterial load in cynomolgus monkeys at the time of

peak shedding following ocular infection (days 3–14). However, it had no impact on the duration of infection or on the progression Metalloexopeptidase of clinical disease. On the other hand, a live attenuated vaccine, consisting of a plasmid-cured (P-) clinical serovar A trachoma isolate (A2497) caused a productive infection, but minimal pathology when inoculated into the eyes of cynomolgus macaques. A2497P-provided a degree of protection from infection and clinical disease on subsequent challenge with the wild type strain [39]. Three of 6 vaccinated monkeys were resistant to challenge ocular infection and, in the 3 which became infected, the bacterial load was lower than in control animals. The 3 monkeys that were protected from infection shared a common MHC class II haplotype. There was no evidence that vaccination led to more severe disease in animals which succumbed to challenge infection [39].

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