CONCLUSIONS

Mutations in RAS, particularly HRAS, are f

CONCLUSIONS

Mutations in RAS, particularly HRAS, are frequent in cutaneous squamous-cell carcinomas and keratoacanthomas that develop in patients treated with vemurafenib. The molecular mechanism is consistent with the paradoxical activation of MAPK signaling and leads to accelerated growth of these lesions. (Funded by Hoffmann-La Roche and others; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00405587, NCT00949702, NCT01001299, and NCT01006980.)”
“Aims: The main aims of this study were to clone and express a new outer membrane protein U (OmpU) from MM-102 concentration a pathogenic Vibrio harveyi

SF-1 and investigate its immune efficiency as a vaccine candidate against V. harveyi infection in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

Methods and Results: In this study, a new gene, ompU was cloned from the genomic DNA of pathogenic V. harveyi SF-1. The ompU gene encoded a 35 kDa protein, which was purified by Ni-NTA His-Bind Resin column. A DNA vaccine was constructed by inserting ompU gene into pEGFP-N1 plasmid. Turbot were injected intramuscularly with the purified OmpU protein and the recombinant pEGFP-N1/ompU plasmid, respectively. The fish vaccinated with the purified

OmpU protein were completely protected with a relative per cent of survival (RPS) of 100% against pathogenic V. harveyi infection. Efficient protection was also found in the pEGFP-N1/ompU vaccinated group, with a RPS of 51.4%. Significant specific antibody responses were detected in the vaccinated 3Methyladenine turbot by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Conclusions: A new OmpU was cloned and expressed. Both OmpU protein vaccine and DNA vaccine showed good immune protections in turbot.

Significance and Impact of the Study: The OmpU was identified to be a new effective vaccine candidate and could be used as subunit vaccine

and DNA vaccine for disease control caused the by pathogenic V. harveyi.”
“The bowels of humans contain resident bacterial communities, the members of which are numerous and biodiverse. Changes in the composition of bowel communities is accepted to occur in relation to antibiotic-associated colitis of the elderly, but compositional alterations could also be relevant to allergic diseases in children and inflammatory bowel diseases (i.e. Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis). It is timely, therefore, to reflect on current knowledge of the bacterial community of the human bowel in relation to disease. Modern analytical methods provide tools by which compositional shifts in bacterial communities can be detected, but inadequate bowel-sampling procedures and poorly designed studies hamper progress. Moreover, demonstration that population shifts cause the disease and are not just reflections of a diseased state is necessary.

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